The presence of a large number of manufacturing processes makes it difficult to be familiar with all of it. But, there are some processes which are popular and are used to make manufacturing processes efficient. The forging manufacturing process is one such process which is one of the oldest and is commonly used across industries. The process is simple and applicable in most of the manufacturing. For those who don’t know anything about forging, a look at the below definition before proceeding to its types can be of great help.
The term usually refers to a metal working process. In this, compressive forces are applied through the use of dies and tools to shape a work piece as desired. This is mostly done through hammering or pressing the metal. With the growth of the industrial sector, forging has also gone through a lot of improvements.
Use of presses and hammers powered by compressed air, electricity, hydraulics, or steam is an example of the advancements in the field. The forging manufacturing process has a variety of applications in industry. The below paragraph mentions about some of the products formed by applying a forging process.
What products are produced using forging?
The products manufactured using forging have relatively simple geometry in starting. After forging, it is deformed into a product of relatively complex configuration. Forging is used to mainly produce the following products:
- Crane hook
- Connecting rods of an engine
- Gear and blanks
- Crown wheel
There can be a large range of products and it becomes impractical to mention all at once. Forging results in superior quality products than other metal manufacturing processes. This is what makes it the most used manufacturing process. Although it requires expensive tooling, it can be economically attractive if the parts to be produced are large in number.
Types of forging
The types of forging depend on various factors. They are described as follows:
Types depending on temperature:
This category of forging manufacturing process has three types according to the temperature. They are:
- Cold forging: – This type of forging is done nearly at room temperature. It is mostly preferred for soft metals like Aluminium.
- Warm forging: – This is performed above the room temperature but below the recrystallization temperature.
- Hot forging: – This is the widely used forging and is performed above the recrystallization temperature. The recrystallization temperature happens to be the temperature at which new grains form in the metal.
Types depending on the arrangement of dies:
Based on the arrangement of dies, the forging can be categorized into the following two ways:-
- Open-die forging: – This type of forging is suitable only for simple shapes. The dies used are simple and less expensive.
- Closed-die forging: – Another name for closed die forging is impression-die forging. The name is closed-die forging because in this the material is fully constrained in the cavity of upper and lower die halves. The dies used are complex and more expensive. There need to be large production rates to balance the high costs.
Types according to forging requirements:
As the name says, below-mentioned forgings are according to the requirements of forging.
- Hammer forging: – The name clearly explains the processing. Hammer forging is one of the most common forgings and is economical as well. It is versatile and makes good use of a hammer.
- Press forging: – This forging is accomplished by means of single continuous squeezing action. It can be mechanical or hydraulic.
It is clear from the above paragraphs that the forging manufacturing process varies greatly according to the requirements. Apart from these, there are other popular types like roll forging, induction forging, multi directional forging, iso thermal forging, net shape and near net shape forging, upset forging, drop forging etc. as well.